▪️ Found in just one place on earth, tanzanite is a relatively recent discovery. It was named after Tanzania, the country where it was found. Exotic tanzanite is found in only one place on earth, near majestic Kilimanjaro. Commercially mined in only one place, tanzanite is rarer than diamond.
▪️ Because crystals show different colors depending on viewing direction, cutters can choose violetish blue hue or the more favored pure blue depending on how much weight they want to retain from the rough.
▪️ Tanzanite is a birthstone for December, along with zircon and blue topaz. Tanzanite is also the gem for a 24th anniversary.
▪️ Tanzanite’s rich blue can be as beautiful as sapphire’s. A deep saturated blue is the most valuable colour of tanzanite. Paler tones are more affordable. Tanzanite colour is less saturated in smaller sizes. Gems must be above five carats in size to have fine colour.
▪️ Eye-visible inclusions decrease the value of tanzanite, particularly in lighter coloured stones.
▪️ Tanzanite is available in a wide range of shapes but cushion and oval cuts are most common.
▪️ Turquoise is a sky-blue or green translucent to opaque gemstone.
▪️ The name “turquoise” comes from the French “turqueise”, meaning “Turkish stone”, because it was first transported to Europe via a Turkish nation. The colour that we recognize as turquoise was named after this gemstone. Turquoise is the only gemstone that has a colour named after it.
▪️ Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth: dry and barren regions ․
▪️ The spiderweb of veins that appear in turquoise are matrix: evidence of the surrounding rock.
▪️ Turquoise is colored by copper, which creates some of the most vivid blues and greens in gems.
▪️ Turquoise is the traditional birthstone for the month of December and the gem of the 11th anniversary.
▪️ Turquoise is judged on its color, texture, and the absence of matrix.
▪️ Topaz can be distinguished from diamond, ruby, sapphire, citrine, zircon and tourmaline by its hardness. Topaz is a very versatile material․ Therefore it can be cut into a great variety of shapes, such as square, round, octagon, pear, oval, heart and other shapes.
▪️ Precious topaz is a birthstone for November and blue topaz is a birthstone for December. Blue topaz is the gem of the 4th anniversary and Imperial topaz is the gem of the 23rd anniversary.
▪️ Topaz ranges from colorless (white) to yellow, orange, red-brown, light to dark-blue, pink to red, violet and light-green. This is the reason why it can be mistaken for many other gemstones. Most unadulterated topaz is colorless or pale blue. The most rare and valuable topaz is yellow, or pink to reddish-orange, and is known as “imperial topaz” or “precious topaz”. Some yellowish-brown topaz gems can gradually fade when continually exposed to daylight. A lot of topaz is treated in order to enhance the color. A deep blue enhanced topaz is known as “London blue”; medium blue is called “Swiss blue” and light-blue is termed “sky blue”.
▪️ Topaz is transparent to translucent. It exhibits high clarity with few inclusions, so topaz gemstones can be examined by the naked eye and found to be “eye clean”, which means that no imperfections can be seen.
▪️ Citrine is the transparent, pale yellow to brownish orange variety of quartz.
▪️ In the days before modern gemology, its tawny color caused it to be confused with topaz. Today, its attractive color, plus the durability and affordability makes it the top-selling yellow-to-orange gem. It’s an attractive alternative not only for topaz, but also for yellow sapphire.
▪️ Along with topaz, citrine is a birthstone for November. It’s also recognized as the gem that commemorates the thirteenth anniversary.
▪️ The finest citrine color is a saturated yellow to reddish orange free of brownish tints.
▪️ Eye-visible inclusions are not common in citrine. If present, they decrease its value.
▪️ Citrine is available in a wide range of sizes for setting into a variety of jewelry styles.
▪️ The name tourmaline comes from the Sinhalese (Sri Lanka) word tura mali which translates as the stone of mixed colors. Tourmaline is available in a wide variety of colors from black to bluish-black, dark brown, yellow, medium brown, blue to neon blue, lime to dark forest green, red and reddish purple, pink, and colorless.
▪️ Bi-colored and multicolored tourmaline may be green at one end and pink at the other. Watermelon tourmaline is green on the outside and pink on the inside. Some stones change color when viewed from different angles.
▪️ Tourmalines come in all shapes and sizes. The most expensive tourmalines are the blue indicolite, green verdelite and pink rubellite.
▪️ Tourmaline is typically transparent to translucent. The level of inclusions can vary depending on the type of tourmaline.
▪️ Tourmaline is a birthstone for October, along with opal. Tourmaline is also the gem of the eighth anniversary. Tourmaline is believed to strengthen the body and spirit, especially the nervous system, blood. It is also thought to inspire creativity and was used extensively as a talisman by artists and writers.
▪️ Because opal has the colors of other gems, the Romans thought it was the most precious and powerful of all. The Bedouins believed that opals contained lightning and fell from the sky during thunderstorms.
▪️ Opal is an October birthstone.
▪️ There are three main aspects of an opal’s quality:
- Color—Background color and play-of-color
- Pattern—Arrangement of play-of-color
- Clarity—Transparency and quantity of inclusions
▪️ An opal might display a single color, two or three colors, or all the colors of the rainbow. No two opals are exactly alike. Opal displays background color in addition to play-of-color.
▪️ Pattern describes the arrangement of an opal’s play-of-color. Like the shapes you see in the clouds, play-of-color takes many forms.
▪️ With an opal, clarity is its degree of transparency and freedom from inclusions. An opal’s clarity can range all the way from completely transparent to opaque. Experts prize different levels of clarity for different opal types. For example, in crystal opal, experts admire transparency, while in black opal they prefer an opaque background. Each provides the best background for displaying play-of-color in its individual opal type.
▪️ Besides blue sapphire and ruby, the corundum family also includes so-called “fancy sapphires.” They come in violet, green, yellow, orange, pink and intermediate hues. Some stones exhibit the phenomenon known as color change, most often going from blue in daylight or fluorescent lighting to purple under incandescent light. Sapphires can even be gray, black or brown.
▪️ Sapphires are among the most durable naturally occurring elements in the world. The only natural item that can scratch a sapphire is a diamond. The durability of sapphires makes them an excellent choice for engagement rings and other pieces of jewelry that you plan to wear every day.
▪️ Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 5th and 45th wedding anniversaries.
▪️ In the middle ages, Europeans believed that sapphires cured eye diseases and preserved chastity. Sapphires have been used to symbolize nobility and faithfulness.
▪️ The most famous royal sapphire today is the engagement ring given by England’s Prince Charles to Lady Diana Spencer in 1981, and now worn by Princess Catherine. It features an 18 carat white gold, 12 carat oval blue sapphire surrounded by 14 diamonds.
▪️ The Egyptians called peridot the “gem of the sun”. People usually confuse peridot with emerald.
▪️ Peridot is the birthstone for August and the 15th anniversary gemstone.
▪️ Peridot occurs with excellent transparency. Eye-clean specimens are abundant. Larger stones may appear slightly cloudy owing to the presence of inclusions and impurities. When cut and polished, peridot has an attractive, greasy and vitreous luster.
▪️ Although the best peridot is a pure grass green, it is usually yellowish-green.
▪️ Peridot is cut in a wide variety of styles, including ovals, emerald cuts, and cushions. Large crystals of peridot have cut gems more than 50 carats in size. Large, strongly-coloured examples can be spectacular and attractive smaller gems are available for jewelry at all price points.
▪ The name ruby comes from the latin word ruber, which means ‘‘red.” Ruby is usually more pink than garnet.
▪ Ruby is considered one of the four precious stones, together with sapphire, emerald and diamond.
▪ Ruby is the birthstone for July and the gem for the 15th and 40th anniversaries.
▪ The quality of a ruby is determined by its color, cut and clarity, which, along with carat weight, affect its value.
▪ Fine gems are pure, vibrant red to slightly purplish red.
▪ If a ruby’s inclusions affect its transparency or brilliance they reduce the gem’s value significantly.
▪ Rubies can command the highest per-carat price of any colored stone. This makes ruby one of the most important gems in the colored stone market.
▪ Perhaps the best-loved gems of all time, pearls—natural and cultured—occur in a wide variety of colors. The most familiar colors are white and cream (a light yellowish brown). Natural pearls can be separated from cultured pearls by taking X-rays to reveal their inner structures.
▪ Pearl is the birthstone for June and the gem of the third and thirtieth anniversaries. It symbolizes modesty, chastity, and purity.
▪ An assessment of some characteristics determines the value of each type of pearl. They are luster, surface quality, shape and color of the pearl.
▪ Pearls with high luster have sharp bright reflections on the surface.
▪ The number of blemishes on a pearl’s surface is evaluated to judge quality.
▪ Spherical pearls are the most valued but symmetrical drops are also sought.
▪ Although white is most classic, appreciation has grown for more unusual natural colors.
▪ Emeralds are one of the four precious globally recognized stones. The other three are rubies, diamonds and sapphires.
▪ The term emerald comes from the Greek word “smaragdus.” This basically translates to mean “green.”
▪ You can find the emerald all over the world including the U.S., Brazil, Spain, South Africa, Switzerland, Cambodia, and China. Although you can find emeralds virtually anywhere, Colombia is the world’s largest producer of this gem. This country accounts for more than half of the gemstone’s production.
▪ Due to the crystal shape emeralds are commonly cut as rectangular step cuts called emerald cuts.
▪ As the gem of spring, emerald is the perfect choice as the birthstone for the month of May. It’s also the gem of the twentieth and thirty-fifth wedding anniversaries.
▪️Diamond is a symbol of love, fidelity and innocence and embraces strength of character. It is the birthstone for April.
▪️The Four C’s- cut, color, clarity, and carat weight are the most important characteristics of diamond.
▪️The cut of a diamond determines its brilliance. The better a diamond is cut, the more sparkle it will have.
▪️A diamond’s color grade refers to the lack of color. The more colorless the diamond, the higher quality grade it will receive.
▪️Almost all diamonds have tiny imperfections. Diamonds with few or no imperfections receive the highest clarity grades.
▪️Carat is a measure of a diamond’s weight.